What is Intellectual Disability?
It was earlier called mental retardation, but the term or the name of the condition has been changed over time and is now called Intellectual Disability.
Intellectual Disability (ID) is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving) and in adaptive behavior (a range of social and practical skills required for everyday living). This disability originates before the age of 18 – American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD).
- Significant limitations are observed in intellectual functioning
- Behavioral limitations are observed in adapting to environmental demands
- This ID is observed before the age of 18
ID is not merely determined by IQ test only. Evaluation and classification of ID has to take into consideration adaptive skills such as Conceptual, Social, and Everyday Living skills. ID is a state of functioning rather than a defined trait. Many persons with ID may look normal and so at times the condition is hidden, but emerges only when they meet the ordinary challenges in everyday activities.
Conceptual skills refer to the use of language and literacy, money, time, and number concepts, and self-direction.
Social skills refers to interpersonal skills, socially responsible behavior, self-esteem, gullibility, naïveté (i.e., wariness), social problem solving, and the ability to follow rules, obey laws, and avoid being victimized. Often people with ID tend to be people pleasers as they do not have much internal locus of control.
Practical skills refers to everyday activities of care such as grooming, hygiene, self care, occupational skills, healthcare, travel/transportation, schedules/routines, safety, use of money, use of the telephone etc.
Quick & useful website: https://aaidd.org/home